Understanding Different Types of Subsistence Economies: The Case of the Batwa of Buhoma, Uganda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Batwa of Buhoma, Uganda, a remote hunter-gatherer community were evicted from their forest in 1992 in order to provide a sanctuary for the mountain gorillas. Based on individual and group interviews, this commentary provides a case study that describes how the Batwa now address their basic needs, and how they participate in the formation of subsistence markets and microenterprises. In positioning this study, four types of subsistence economies are identified: nature-based, nonprofit-based, market-based, and hybrid. In addition, different types of subsistence markets are identified, namely, within community and cross community markets. This then raises several questions for future research and for subsistence communities like the Batwa’s regarding how to achieve sustainability.

Original languageAmerican English
JournalJournal of Macromarketing
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • hunter-gatherers
  • subsistence markets
  • subsistence economies
  • sustainability
  • indigenous communities
  • macromarketing


  • Business
  • Economics

Cite this