Evolutionary History of the Proviruses HERV-K 113 and HERV-K 115

Keith Garrison, Douglas F. Nixon, Satish K. Pillai, Aashish R. Jha

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Human endogenous retroviruses are found throughout the genome, and most insertions predate human divergence from other primates. A small number are unique to humans and unfixed in the human genome. Much scientific interest has centered on the human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-K113 and HERV-K115 insertions. The evolutionary history of these two endogenous proviruses is complex, and the estimates of both of their insertion times have recently been revised. HERV-K113 inserted into the genome sometime between 0.8 and 1.3 million years ago (Ma), while HERV-K115 was inserted into the genome sometime between 1.1 and 1.9 Ma. Both insertions occurred during a time when Homo erectus is believed to have been the dominant hominin species.

Original languageAmerican English
StatePublished - Sep 15 2014


  • endogenous retrovirus
  • HERV-K113
  • HERV-K115
  • hominin


  • Biology

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